Greg Endres, Clara Presser, Marcia
McMullen, Carl Bradley, Jan Knodel, and Duane
uring the 2005 growing season,
field surveys were conducted in North
Dakota by the NDSU Extension Service to identify pest
presence and agronomic production factors in small grain and oilseed crops.
Survey coordinators were Drs. Marcia McMullen and
Carl Bradley, extension plant
pathologists, and Jan Knodel, extension entomologist.
Carrington Research Extension
Center staff members
Clara Presser, summer IPM crop scout, and Greg Endres, area extension
specialist/cropping systems, conducted the surveys in 370 fields in 12
south-central counties (Burleigh, Dickey, Eddy, Emmons, Foster, Kidder, LaMoure, Logan, McIntosh, Sheridan, Stutsman, and Wells).
Use of the survey data includes grower and ag industry education, and support for labeling of
crop protection products.
The small grain survey was conducted in south-central
from early June to early August, primarily for leaf and head diseases. The 228
surveyed fields included 195 wheat and 33 barley fields. Diseases included in
the survey were bacterial leaf blight, barley yellow dwarf mosaic virus, black
chaff, Cephalasporum stripe, dwarf bunt, ergot, rust
(leaf, stem, and stripe), scab (Fusarium head blight), Septoria,
smut (flag and loose), spot blotch, tan spot, and wheat streak mosaic. As an
example of generated data, the figure below illustrates the seasonís summary of
scab severity across North Dakota.
The survey insect list included aphids, cereal leaf beetle, grasshoppers, and thrips (barley).
The canola survey was conducted from July 27 to
August 5 in 15 swathed fields in Burleigh, Eddy, Foster, Sheridan, Stutsman,
and Wells counties. The fields were inspected for the presence of Sclerotinia
stem rot (white mold), blackleg, aster yellows, and Alternaria.
White mold was detected in 6 (40%) surveyed fields, but field incidence was low
(2-8% of plants infected). Blackleg was found in 4 (27%) of the surveyed
fields, but with low plant incidence. In addition, the fields were surveyed for
flea beetles and grasshoppers.
fields were surveyed for soybean aphid and diseases (root, stem and foliar)
including soybean rust. Soybean aphids were found in all 12 counties for the
first time in 2005, but at non-economic levels. Soybean rust did not occur in North Dakota.
survey conducted in south-central North Dakota
included 64 fields visited during late June to mid August to inspect plants for
downy mildew, sunflower beetle, and seed weevil. Downy mildew was found in 46
(72%) surveyed fields with incidence ranging from 1 to 22.5%.
A sunflower field
survey was also conducted in September by the National Sunflower Association in
cooperation with the NDSU Extension Service. Various data were recorded,
including plant population, row spacing, tillage system, estimated yield, and
presence of weeds, insects, or diseases. Survey coordinator was Dr. Duane
Berglund. Greg Endres, Richard Maine (Wells County
extension agent), and Wendy Bengochea (Foster County
extension agent) participated in the program by surveying 11 fields in Foster,
Eddy, and Pierce counties. In these counties, average plant population was
17,500 plants/acre (range of 9,500 to 23,300) and average yield was estimated
at 1880 lbs./acre (range of 1110 to 2550). The
majority of surveyed fields were in 30-inch rows (73%) and conventional till
(82%). The most common yield-limiting factors were plant population and bird damage.
Sclerotinia incidence was low.
Dr. Marcia McMullen and Richard Maine conduct
Maps displaying summaries of survey results by crop and pest
are available at http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/ndipm/.
Survey details may be obtained by contacting the Carrington Center.