Progress Report Year 2004-2005
Determining calf value is a continuing experience for cow
calf producers. At time of bull
selection, a producer must estimate the type of animal desired by buyers 1½- 2
years before sale. In regards to premium
and discounts in
Materials and Methods
The Dakota Feeder Calf Show was developed for cattle producers willing to consign steer calves to a show and feedout contest. The calves were received in groups of three or four on October 16, 2004, to the Turtle Lake Weighing Station for weighing, tagging, processing and showing. The calves were evaluated for conformity and uniformity with the judges providing a discussion to the owners at the beginning of the feedout.
The calves were then shipped to the
An open house was held on February 11, 2005, at the
NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center Livestock Unit,
The first market group of cattle (11 head) was
harvested on March 29, 2005. The second
sell group (77 head) was harvested on May12, 2005. The third sell group (42 head) was harvested
on May 25, 2005 and the last sell group (27 head) was harvested on June 4,
2005. Cattle were sold to Tyson Fresh Meats,
Ranking in the pen-of-three competition was based on the best score obtained. Overall score was determined by adding the index score for weight per day of age (20% of score), average daily gain on test (20% of score), marbling score (20% of score), and retail product value divided by weight per day of age (40% of score). The Dakota Feeder Calf Show provided cash awards for the top placing pens of steers.
Results and Discussion
Cattle consigned to the Dakota Feeder Calf Show Feedout project averaged 613.5 pounds upon delivery to the Carrington Research Extension Center Livestock Unit on October 16, 2004. After an average 211-day feeding period with 3.09% death loss, cattle averaged 1308.6 pounds (at plant, shrunk weight). The early sell group (11 head) averaged 1264.5 pounds (shrunk) at harvest. The second sell group (77 head) averaged 1367.2 pounds (shrunk) at harvest. The third sell group (42 head) averaged 1253.8 pounds (shrunk) at harvest and the last sell group (27 head) averaged 1244.8 pounds (shrunk) at harvest. Average daily feed intake per head was 29.25 pounds, as fed basis, and 21.3 pounds, dry matter basis. Pounds of feed required per pound of gain were 9.44, as fed basis, and 6.87 pounds, dry matter basis.
Overall feed cost per pound of gain was $0.307. Overall yardage cost per pound of gain was $0.079. Combined cost per pound of gain including feed, yardage, veterinary, trucking and other expenses except interest was $0.476.
The number of cattle consigned was 162 of which 129 competed in the pen-of-three contest. Cattle were implanted with Synovex Choice at 94 days on feed.
The carcass characteristics were collected and used in calculating indexes for scoring. The first market group, harvested March 29, 2005, contained USDA Quality Grades at 45.2% Choice or better (including 4.76% Certified Angus Beef) and 54.76% Select and USDA Yield Grades at 7.14% YG1 , 42.86% YG2, and 50% YG3. The second market group, harvested May 12, 2005, contained USDA Quality Grades at 63.64% Choice (including 9.09% Certified Angus Beef), 27.27% Select, and 9.09% Standard and USDA Yield Grades at 36.36% YG2, and 63.64% YG3. The third market group, harvested May 25, 2005, contained USDA Quality Grades at 71.43% Choice (including 10.39% Certified Angus Beef), 27.27% Select, and 1.3% Standard and USDA Yield Grades at 2.6% YG1, 50.65% YG2, and 46.75% YG3. The last market group, harvested June 4, 2005, contained USDA Quality Grades at 40.74% Choice and 59.26% Select and USDA Yield Grades at 22.22% YG 1, 55.56% YG2, and 22.22% YG3.
Carcass value per cwt was calculated by using the actual base carcass price plus premiums and discounts. Grid prices were: March 29, 2005 - $149.06 Choice YG3 base with premiums of CAB $4.64, YG1 $6.50, YG2 $2.50, and discounts of Select $-3.40, and YG4 $-15; May 12, 2005 - $151.13 Choice YG3 base with premiums of CAB $3.57, YG1 $6.50, YG2 $2.50, and discounts of Select $-14.05, Standard $-16.35, YG4 $-15; May 25, 2005 - $147.79 Choice YG3 base with premiums of CAB $4.76, YG1 $6.50, YG2 $2.50, and discounts of Select $-14.80, Standard $-17.10, YG4 $-15; and June 4, 2005 - $145.63 Choice YG3 base with premiums of CAB $2.66, YG1 $6.50, YG2 $2.50, and discounts of Select $-14.44, Standard $-16.74, YG4 $-15.
Retail product value was calculated as carcass weight, lb. * percent retail product *(((carcass value per cwt /100)/ retail product yield) / retail product markup) where retail product yield = 0.65, and retail product markup = 0.75. Percent retail product value was calculated as 0.825 - (calculated yield grade *0.05).
Results from the calves selected for the pen-of-three competition are listed in Table 1. Overall, the pen-of-three calves averaged 409 days of age and averaged 1322.0 pounds per head at harvest. Overall pen-of -three average daily gain was 3.32 pounds while weight per day of age was 3.23 lbs. Overall pen-of-three marbling score was 425.9 or 25.9% into low choice/small marbling. Retail product value averaged $1734.16 per head. Retail product value divided by day of age averaged $4.24.
Dakota Feeder Calf Feedout steers.
The highest combined index score per pen-of-three was 3.57. While the highest overall scoring pen did not place first in average daily gain, weight per day of age, harvest weight, or percent retail product value divided by weight per day of age and profit, the pen did rank first for marbling score at 607. Correlation between index score total and profit was high (r = 0.9213). Correlations between profit and average daily gain, weight per day of age, marbling score, or percent retail product value divided by weight per day of age are shown in Table 2.
Profit or loss was calculated using initial calf price as price per pound, $ = 169.4306 – (0.074622 * initial calf weight). Profit or loss accounted for initial calf price, feed, yardage, veterinary, freight, brand inspection, beef check off, ultrasound and carcass data collection costs. Interest costs on cattle or feeding expenses were not included in calculating profit or loss. Final carcass value was assessed using the actual grid pricing for the harvest group.
Overall, cattle feeding provided a $84.40 profit before interest was included. However, the top profit pen-of-three calves with superior genetics returned $242.33 per head while the bottom pen-of-three calves returned $-9.66 per head due to death loss.
Calf value is improved with superior carcass
performance. Feedlot performance is also
important for increased weight gain and heavier carcass weights. Exceptional average daily gains, weight per
day of age, marbling score and retail product value can be found in