Clara Presser, and Marcia McMullen
uring the 2004 growing season, field surveys were conducted
in North Dakota
by the NDSU Extension Service to identify pest presence and agronomic
production factors in small grain and oilseed crops. Carrington Research
staff members Clara Presser, summer IPM crop scout, and Greg
Endres, area extension
specialist/cropping systems conducted the surveys in 346 fields in 12
south-central counties (Burleigh, Dickey, Eddy, Emmons, Foster, Kidder, LaMoure, Logan, McIntosh, Sheridan, Stutsman, and Wells).
Across North Dakota,
the survey was coordinated by Marcia McMullen and
Carl Bradley, plant pathologists;
Phil Glogoza, entomologist; and Duane Berglund. Use of the survey data includes
grower and ag industry
education, support for labeling of crop protection products, and supporting
research and extension programs.
The small grain survey was conducted in south-central
from early June to early August primarily for leaf and head diseases. The 227
surveyed fields included 169 wheat and 58 barley fields. Diseases included in
the survey were bacterial leaf blight, barley yellow dwarf, black chaff, Cephalasporum stripe, dwarf bunt, ergot, rust (leaf, stem,
and stripe), scab (Fusarium head blight), Septoria,
smut (flag and loose), spot blotch, tan spot, and wheat streak mosaic. As an
example of generated data, the figure below illustrates scab severity across North Dakota. The survey
insect list included aphids, cereal leaf beetle, grasshoppers, and thrips (barley).
survey conducted in south-central ND included 69 fields visited during early
July to mid August to inspect plants for downy mildew, sunflower beetle, and
seed weevil. Downy mildew was commonly
found in the region as illustrated in the figure below.
The canola survey was conducted during August 9-11 in
15 swathed fields in Stutsman, Foster, Eddy, Wells, and Sheridan counties. The fields were inspected
for the presence of Sclerotinia stem rot (white mold), blackleg, aster yellows,
and Alternaria. White mold was detected in 67% (10)
of surveyed fields, but field incidence was low (2-12% of plants infected).
Blackleg was found in 60% (9) of the surveyed fields, but with low plant
incidence. In addition, the fields were surveyed for flea beetles and
fields were surveyed in Eddy, Foster, Stutsman, LaMoure,
and Dickey counties during mid-summer (July 26 to August 5) and again in
September. Notes taken included yield estimates, prominent yield limiting
factors, plant population, row spacing, tillage system, root nodulation, and
presence of weed species, diseases (root, stem and foliar), and soybean
aphid. Also, a follow-up telephone
survey was conducted by extension agents to gather additional production data
from farmers whose fields were visited. Limited data has been compiled at the
time of this report.
Maps displaying summaries of survey results by crop and pest
are available at the following website: http://www.ag.ndsu.nodak.edu/aginfo/ndipm/.
Survey details may be obtained by contacting the Carrington Center.
Clara Presser, crop scout, surveying insect populations.