Agribusiness and Applied Economics


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About Dr. Saleem Shaik

Dr. Saleem Shaik

Office: Barry Hall 400F

Phone: 701.231.7459

Fax: 701.231.7400

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Dr. Shaik's Research Profile

Dr. Saleem Shaik is an Professor in Agribusiness and Applied Economics at North Dakota State University.  He received his PhD in Agricultural Economics from University of Nebraska, Lincoln.  His dissertation is titled “Environmentally adjusted productivity [EAP] measures for the Nebraska agriculture sector”.

As the director of Center for Agricultural Policy and Trade Studies (CAPTS), in cooperation with U.S. Senators John Hoeven and Heidi Heitkamp, and Congressman Kevin Cramer, I organized the 2018 Farm Policy and Bill: Issues and Opportunities Conference, Fargo, N.D. on April 12, 2017.


AGEC 346 – Applied Risk Analysis

AGEC 739 – Analytical Methods for Applied Research

AGEC 746 – Agricultural Finance

AEC 8143 – Agricultural Production

Research Interests

To complement my teaching, my research philosophy is built on three major pillars - 1) contribute to new applied economic/statistical concepts or knowledge, 2) develop farm-level, state-level and international-level agriculture sector databases, and 3) link economic concepts to statistical concepts to data and variables to conduct empirical analyses. Building on the three major pillars, research deals with – 1) efficiency, technology and productivity growth analyses, 2) economics of crop yield distributions, 3) U.S. federal farm policy, historical farm bills and regulations, and 4) trade studies and agreements.

 In the area of efficiency, technology and productivity growth analyses include computation and estimation of efficiency, technology and productivity growth of North Dakota agriculture sector relative to Northern Great Plain states (ND, SD, MN, MT, NE and KS) from 1933 to 2015. This is as the indexes starts from 1933 when federal farm policy was introduced in U.S. as part of New Deal legislation. This involved the collection of individual output and input quantities and prices to compute indexes. I have also computed and estimated input-specific and output-specific enterprise and farm efficiency, technology and productivity benchmarks of North Dakota 540 farms from 1993 to 2016. The goal of developing benchmarks is to provide producers with an additional tool (benchmarks) in decision making.

 In the area of economics of crop yields distributions include examination of yield distributions for all major crops using USDA county level data from 1949 to 2016, Indian district level data from 1960 to 2012 and worldwide country level data in the context of crop insurance. In the last three years, I have evaluated the role of climate and climate variations or risk along with technology on crop yield trends and four moments of its distribution. I was involved in a seminal publication challenging the normality assumption of crop yields for crop insurance. In addition, I have published several papers on the importance of time-series, panel, and hierarchical linear models to estimate systematic and random components of crop yield trends and moments of its distribution. Extending the crop yield distributions research with the use of precision agriculture data (GIS and GPS) for future development of crop insurance policies and economics of precision agriculture for decision making.,

In the area of federal farm policy and historical farm bills include quantifying the importance of commodity programs (Title I), conservation (Title II) and crop insurance (Title XI) programs on efficiency and productivity using state level and North Dakota county level data. Two of my MS students looked at the importance of commodity programs (Title I), conservation (Title II) and crop insurance (Title XI) on efficiency and productivity for North Dakota. I have expanded the analyses to the U.S. agriculture sector and is currently in review with a journal. I also evaluated the importance of farm programs on land values using state level data and published several journal articles. The other major contribution, is the estimation of historical rate of returns to public research, extension and development investments, private innovations via patents, federal farm policy investments using ND and Northern Great Plain states. This research also is part of my Hatch project and forms the basis of Center for Agriculture Policy and Trade Studies (CAPTS), for which I serve as director.

 Finally, my research is also leveraged by my strong external relationships in the area of trade studies and agreements. I have worked collaboratively with Director of the International Trade Center at NC A&T State University in the last ten years on various aspects of trade (Title III) including evaluating the importance of trade openness, free trade agreements- NAFTA, Trans Pacific Partnership (TPP), Trans-Atlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (T-TIP) on efficiency and productivity; international trade of genetically modified crops; welfare impacts of mandatory country of origin labeling (MCOOL). I have also mentored several graduate students from NC A&T State University.

 Prior to coming to NDSU, Saleem was involved in the Assessment & Implementability of Income Protection on U.S. nation-wide basis; Cross-validation of historical, loss and policies databases for U.S.; Insurance rates review for all the U.S cotton states, and development of statistical and econometric computer programs to address fraud in Federal Crop Insurance program at Montana State University.

Development of potential insurance policy designs for U.S. aquaculture industry; Development and pre-testing of Aquaculture Risk Management Survey by working with industry groups, farmers, aquaculture, veterinary and extension scientists; worked with Office of Management and Budget, for submission and approval process of Aquaculture Survey Instrument; Development of aquaculture database related to their production, losses and characteristics of aquaculture producers in US at Mississippi State University working with “National Risk Management Feasibility Program for Aquaculture.”


Selected Publications

Journal Articles

Shaik, Saleem., and Bhattacharjee, S. 2016. Hierarchical Crop Yield Linear Model, Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences 9 (2), 219-231

Shaik, Saleem. 2015. Impact of Liquidity Risk on Variations in Efficiency and Productivity: A Panel Gamma Simulated Maximum Likelihood Estimation, European Journal of Operational Research 245 (2), 463- 469.

Shaik, Saleem. “Does Crop Insurance Affect the Technical Efficiency? A Panel DEA Analysis”, American Journal of Agricultural Economics (

Shaik, Saleem. “Re-examination of production, cost, and restricted profit functions using quantile regression approach”, Agricultural Economics (

Shaik, Saleem. “Did Crop Insurance Programmes Change the Systematic Yield Risk?” Indian Journal of Agricultural Economics, 68, 1(2013): 89-103. (

Shaik, Saleem, J.A. Atwood and G.A. Helmers. “Did 1933 New Deal Legislation Contribute to Farm Real Estate: Regional Analysis”, Journal of Policy Modeling, 34, 6(2012): 801-816. ( 

Shaik, Saleem, A. Mishra and J.A. Atwood. “Aggregation Issues in the Estimation of Linear Programming Productivity Measures”, Journal of Applied Economics, XV, 1(2012): 169-187. (

Shaik, Saleem and Dragan Miljkovic. “The Impact of Trade Openness on Technical Efficiency in U.S. Agriculture”, Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, 35, 1(2012): 153-165. (

Shaik, Saleem and Dragan Miljkovic. “Nature of Dynamic Relationships between Farm Real Estate Values and Federal Farm Program Payments”, Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 35, 1(2012): 153-165. (

Shaik, Saleem. “Importance of Panel Analysis in Examining Normality of Crop Yield Distributions”, Journal of Quantitative Economics, 8, 1(2010): 55-68. (

Shaik, Saleem, A. J. Allen, S. Edwards-Morris, and J. Harris. “Market Structure, Conduct, and Performance Hypothesis Revisited Using Stochastic Frontier Efficiency Analysis”, Journal of Transportation Research Forum, 48, 3(2009): 5-18. (

Shaik, Saleem, Keith Coble, Thomas O. Knight, Alan E. Baquet, and George F.Patrick, “Crop Revenue and Yield Insurance Demand: A Subjective Probability Approach” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics. 40, 3 (December 2008): 757-766. (

Shaik, Saleem, Keith Coble, Darren Hudson, Terry Hanson, Corey Miller, and Stephen H. Sempier. “Willingness to Pay for a Potential Trout Aquaculture" Agricultural and Resource Economics Review. 37, 1 (April 2008): 41-50. (

Shaik, Saleem. “Examining the Normality of Indian Rice Wheat Yields?” Pravartak: Journal of Insurance and Risk Management, 3, 1(2007): 112-119.

Atwood, Joseph, James Robinson-Cox and Saleem Shaik. “A Direct Test of Yield Switching Fraud in the Federal Crop Insurance Program” American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 88, No 2 (May 2006) pp: 365–381. (

Atwood, Joseph, Saleem Shaik and M. Watts. “Are Crop Yields Normally Distributed? A Reexamination” American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Vol. 85, No 4 (Nov 2003): 888-901. (

Shaik, Saleem, Joseph Atwood and Glenn Helmers. “The Evolution of Farm Programs and their Contribution to Agricultural Land Values.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87, 5(2005): 1190-1197. (

Shaik, Saleem, G. A. Helmers and M. Langemeier. “Direct and Indirect Shadow Price Estimates of Nitrate Pollution Treated as an Undesirable Output and Input.” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 27, 2(2002): 420-432. (


Book Chapters

Shaik, Saleem. 2016. Role of Crop Insurance and Farm Programs in Contributing to Agriculture Land Values by Major Farm Bills. Public Policy in Agriculture: It’s Impact on Labor, Income and Food Security.

Atwood, J. and Saleem Shaik. 2017. Quantile DEA: Estimating qDEA- Efficiency Estimates with Conventional Linear Programming., coming out in 2017.

Shaik, Saleem and A. K. Mishra. “Alternative Panel Estimators of Panel Gamma Simulated Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Model: Implications of Agriculture financial Ratios on Efficiency and Productivity.” Advances in Econometrics, Volume 26 (2010): 299-322.

Shaik, Saleem, B.J. Barnett, K.H. Coble, J.C. Miller, and T. Hanson. “Insurability Conditions and Livestock Disease Insurance” in Livestock Insurance Products International Conference and Forum: Discovery of Ideas and Issues. Koontz S.R. and D.L. Hoag, eds., pp. 53-67. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, 2006.


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