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Write the Right Word: Including

Despite the way “include” or “including” seems to be used these days, it does not mean “all” or “everything.”

Use “include” or “including” before a series only if you are not listing everything. For example: “The family has several pets, including three cats and a dog.” Using “including” in this case is OK because the family also has two hamsters and a parakeet.

When you list everything in a series, use “are.” For example: “The three color options for this model are white, green and light blue.”

One more hint: Do not tack “etc.” or “and more” to the end of a list when you precede it with “include” or “including.” The words “include” and “including” are a clear indication that the list is not complete, which makes the “etc.” or “and more” unnecessary.

Ellen Crawford, information specialist, (701) 231-5391

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