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Borreliosis (Lyme disease)

Borreliosis (Lyme disease) - V1694

Borreliosis (Lyme disease) is the most commonly reported vector-borne (insect-transmitted) disease in the U.S. In this country, it is found primarily in the Northeast, upper Midwest and northern California. Boreliosis is caused by a spiral bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that is found in a variety of reservoir hosts (birds, small and medium-sized mammals). Humans are infected by a tick bite.

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Tick-borne Infections

Tick-borne Infections - V1693

Tick-borne infections are found worldwide. In the upper Midwest, this group of diseases consists primarily of tularemia, borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) have been covered in prior publications; therefore, this discussion will focus on ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. These diseases are passed from ticks to wild and domesticated animal reservoir hosts. Humans are infected when bitten by ticks carrying the pathogenic bacteria.

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Feed Efficiency

Improving Profitability Through Feed Efficiency by Reducing Feed Bunk Losses - AS1641

Feeding behavior of group-housed dairy cows is influenced by management practices at the feed bunk and factors associated with the physical and social environment. The feeding pattern of group-housed dairy cows is largely influenced by the timing of fresh feed delivery, and the delivery of fresh feed has a greater impact on stimulating cows to eat than does the return from milking. Delivering fresh feed more frequently improves access to fresh feed for all cows and reduces sorting of the TMR. This potentially will reduce variation in diet quality consumed by cows, with benefits for milk production.

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Backgrounding Beef Cattle

Systems for Backgrounding Beef Cattle - AS1151

Many different methods or systems of backgrounding, or growing beef cattle, are available. Each system has advantages and disadvantages that producers must weigh before deciding which is right for them. Producers should recognize the need for many different types of systems because of the many different types of cattle. Not all backgrounding systems work with each type of cattle. Some cattle are best suited to being finished directly after weaning, while other cattle are best finished following an extensive growing program. This publication will outline the different types of backgrounding systems that are available for producers to use and describe the kind and type of cattle that best fit each system.

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Silage Fermentation and Preservation

Quality Forage: Silage Fermentation and Preservation - AS1254

High-quality silage is achieved when lactic acid is the predominant acid produced because it is the most efficient fermentation acid and will drop the pH of the silage the fastest. The faster the fermentation is completed, the more nutrients will be retained in the silage.

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Haylage and Other Fermented Forages

Quality Forage: Haylage and Other Fermented Forages - AS1252

Cutting fresh forage at the optimal stage of maturity and feeding it directly to animals year-round would supply the highest-quality and most palatable feed possible. In addition, field and storage losses would be the least of all methods of forage utilization. However, fluctuations in seasonal growth and plant maturity make harvesting and storing forages necessary to maximize quality and productivity.

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Stressed or Damaged Crops

Quality Forage: Stressed or Damaged Crops - AS1256

Stressed crops resulting from unfavorable weather conditions require special management considerations. Yield and quality of frost and drought-damaged crops usually are maximized when harvested as silage.

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Corn Silage Management

Quality Forage: Corn Silage Management - AS1253

Silage can be made from many different crops, although the ability to make good silage is limited at times. In North Dakota, corn is a widely used crop for silage. Worldwide, corn silage is one of the most important forges used for livestock.

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Storage, Sampling and Measuring

Quality Forage: Storage, Sampling and Measuring - AS-1255

Using proper sampling techniques is essential to obtain a representative sample for moisture determination. For hay, the procedure used will vary, depending on whether sampling is being done from the windrow, bale or stack.

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Encephalitis Virus Infections

Encephalitis Virus Infections - V1677

Arboviral infections are zoonotic (transmissible between animals and humans).

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Water Quality of Runoff From Beef Cattle Feedlots

Water Quality of Runoff From Beef Cattle Feedlots - WQ1667

Runoff from feedlot may cause surface and groundwater pollution. Knowledge of runoff quality from beef cattle feedlot pens would be useful to design effective management practices to protect water quality. The objective of this bulletin is to share runoff quality measurements from three beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces under North Dakota management and climatic conditions.

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Echinococcus in Dogs and Cats

Echinococcus in Dogs and Cats - V1669

Echinococcosis is a disease caused by the infection of animals and humans with tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. An understanding of the parasite life cycle is important in reducing human and animal exposure.

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Roundworms in Dogs and Cats

Roundworms in Dogs and Cats - V1670

Canine and Feline Roundworm and Hookworm Infections: A Public Health Concern Domestic dogs and cats are capable of infecting humans with the eggs of canine and feline roundworms and hookworms shed in fecal matter. While these types of infections are uncommon, they are well-described in the medical literature and can, in some cases, be severe.

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Interpreting Composition and Determining Market Value

Quality Forage: Interpreting Composition and Determining Market Value - AS1251

New knowledge in forage quality and animal feeding, and significant advances in improving the genetic potential of animals used to produce milk, meat and wool, improve efficiency and lower costs. However, to do this, today’s producer must be aware of and utilize the latest information on feed quality and feeding management.

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Beef Feeding Operation Siting and Design Basics

Beef Feeding Operation Siting and Design Basics - NM1155

One of the most important decisions when planning any livestock facility is site selection. The site for the feedlot operation must not only be suitable for housing, handling and feeding cattle, but also must ensure that surface and ground waters are protected and the impact from odors is minimized. Whether you are planning a new facility or modifying an existing one, the following information may help avoid costly mistakes.

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Grazing Readiness

Determining Grazing Readiness for Native and Tame Pastures - R1061

Proper pasture and range management begins early in the spring. A major decision to be made is: When to start grazing?

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Early Weaning Lambs

Early Weaning Lambs - AS1318

Benefits of Early Weaning Range sheep operations traditionally have allowed lambs to graze with ewes until late summer or early fall. In years when pasture is abundant and lamb growth is satisfactory, producers have little or no reason to wean lambs before they are ready to be finished.

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Abortions in Sheep

Abortions in Sheep - AS1317

The lambing season can be the most exciting time of the year for a sheep producer. The long awaited opportunity to evaluate that new ram or great set of replacement ewes finally arises. So, when the first two ewes abort, the next ewe has a stillborn lamb and the fourth ewe has a set of twins that are weak at birth and soon die, the experience can be very depressing and frustrating. These are all signs of an infectious abortion outbreak that should motivate you to 1) identify the cause(s) of abortion in your flock and 2) develop a plan to control or prevent abortions from occurring in the future.

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Forage Nutrition for Ruminants

Forage Nutrition for Ruminants - AS1250

Plants utilized in the feeding of livestock have long been a fundamental link in the food chain. Native grasses supported grazing animals well before man began to domesticate livestock. Forages have always been an extremely important source of nutrients in livestock rations. Additionally, they provide fiber in the ration which enhances proper digestion in forage-consuming animals. Through their conversion into milk and meat products, forages continue to be one of the primary sources of nourishment in the human diet.

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Feeding Value of Sprouted Grain

Feeding Value of Sprouted Grains - AS647

In North Dakota, having wet weather conditions that delay the harvest is not unusual. These conditions can cause small grains to sprout in the swath or in the head, making them unsuitable for use in the milling, brewing and food industries. However, this grain can be fed to livestock.

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