Livestock manure management issues are becoming increasingly important and complex. Ample educational, technical and financial assistance is available to producers. Individuals are encouraged to take a proactive approach when dealing with livestock manure to take advantage of resources and avoid negative regulatory action.
Planning for the future can be a very frustrating process but one that typically pays high dividends. These planning prices can be used for preparing annual enterprise budgets and annual whole-farm cash-flow projections.
Plague is a flea-borne infection caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. It is a disease that affects humans and other mammals. While it is often associated with the death of millions of people in the middle ages, it is still found in some parts of the world today. In the United States it is most commonly found in the four corners region of the western United States.
Borreliosis (Lyme disease) is the most commonly reported vector-borne (insect-transmitted) disease in the U.S. In this country, it is found primarily in the Northeast, upper Midwest and northern California. Boreliosis is caused by a spiral bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, that is found in a variety of reservoir hosts (birds, small and medium-sized mammals). Humans are infected by a tick bite.
Tick-borne infections are found worldwide. In the upper Midwest, this group of diseases consists primarily of tularemia, borreliosis (Lyme disease), ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) and borreliosis (Borrelia burgdorferi) have been covered in prior publications; therefore, this discussion will focus on ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis. These diseases are passed from ticks to wild and domesticated animal reservoir hosts. Humans are infected when bitten by ticks carrying the pathogenic bacteria.
Feeding behavior of group-housed dairy cows is influenced by management practices at the feed bunk and factors associated with the physical and social environment. The feeding pattern of group-housed dairy cows is largely influenced by the timing of fresh feed delivery, and the delivery of fresh feed has a greater impact on stimulating cows to eat than does the return from milking. Delivering fresh feed more frequently improves access to fresh feed for all cows and reduces sorting of the TMR. This potentially will reduce variation in diet quality consumed by cows, with benefits for milk production.
Many different methods or systems of backgrounding, or growing beef cattle, are available. Each system has advantages and disadvantages that producers must weigh before deciding which is right for them. Producers should recognize the need for many different types of systems because of the many different types of cattle. Not all backgrounding systems work with each type of cattle. Some cattle are best suited to being finished directly after weaning, while other cattle are best finished following an extensive growing program. This publication will outline the different types of backgrounding systems that are available for producers to use and describe the kind and type of cattle that best fit each system.
High-quality silage is achieved when lactic acid is the predominant acid produced because it is the most efficient fermentation acid and will drop the pH of the silage the fastest. The faster the fermentation is completed, the more nutrients will be retained in the silage.
Cutting fresh forage at the optimal stage of maturity and feeding it directly to animals year-round would supply the highest-quality and most palatable feed possible. In addition, field and storage losses would be the least of all methods of forage utilization. However, fluctuations in seasonal growth and plant maturity make harvesting and storing forages necessary to maximize quality and productivity.
Stressed crops resulting from unfavorable weather conditions require special management considerations. Yield and quality of frost and drought-damaged crops usually are maximized when harvested as silage.
Silage can be made from many different crops, although the ability to make good silage is limited at times. In North Dakota, corn is a widely used crop for silage. Worldwide, corn silage is one of the most important forges used for livestock.
Using proper sampling techniques is essential to obtain a representative sample for moisture determination. For hay, the procedure used will vary, depending on whether sampling is being done from the windrow, bale or stack.
Arboviral infections are zoonotic (transmissible between animals and humans).
Runoff from feedlot may cause surface and groundwater pollution. Knowledge of runoff quality from beef cattle feedlot pens would be useful to design effective management practices to protect water quality. The objective of this bulletin is to share runoff quality measurements from three beef cattle feedlot pen surfaces under North Dakota management and climatic conditions.
Echinococcosis is a disease caused by the infection of animals and humans with tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. An understanding of the parasite life cycle is important in reducing human and animal exposure.
Canine and Feline Roundworm and Hookworm Infections: A Public Health Concern Domestic dogs and cats are capable of infecting humans with the eggs of canine and feline roundworms and hookworms shed in fecal matter. While these types of infections are uncommon, they are well-described in the medical literature and can, in some cases, be severe.
New knowledge in forage quality and animal feeding, and significant advances in improving the genetic potential of animals used to produce milk, meat and wool, improve efficiency and lower costs. However, to do this, today’s producer must be aware of and utilize the latest information on feed quality and feeding management.
One of the most important decisions when planning any livestock facility is site selection. The site for the feedlot operation must not only be suitable for housing, handling and feeding cattle, but also must ensure that surface and ground waters are protected and the impact from odors is minimized. Whether you are planning a new facility or modifying an existing one, the following information may help avoid costly mistakes.
Proper pasture and range management begins early in the spring. A major decision to be made is: When to start grazing?
Benefits of Early Weaning Range sheep operations traditionally have allowed lambs to graze with ewes until late summer or early fall. In years when pasture is abundant and lamb growth is satisfactory, producers have little or no reason to wean lambs before they are ready to be finished.