The start of a cool-wet spring and recent rain events across the state have provided favorable conditions for foliar pathogen infections on small grains. Likewise, IPM scouts are reporting varying levels of tan spot incidence across wheat fields; however, severity is generally low.
In an effort to get crops in quickly, small grain growers may have thought about forgoing seed treatments and plant a higher population instead. I haven’t found any formal research comparing the two, but the situation provides an interesting discussion on risk taking.
The National FHB Prediction Tool also is available for use this season. Although we have no crops near flowering, the southeastern states are experiencing low to medium risks for scab development in winter wheat.
The NDSU small grain disease forecasting website is now available for this growing season. The site uses weather and growth stage data to assess the risk of infection for the foliar pathogens that cause tan spot, Septoria, and leaf rust.
Sugar beet seeds germinate and emerge over a wide temperature range in the presence of adequate moisture and oxygen supply.
The most common early season diseases are damping-off, which may be caused by Pythium, Rhizoctonia and Aphanomyces.
If the rain continues and planting becomes more delayed, we anticipate that growers may consider switching crops.
Research done at North Dakota State University and the University of Minnesota showed that a wide range of plant population resulted in high recoverable sucrose, but plant populations of 175 to 200 plants per 100 foot of 22 inch wide rows consistently resulted in the maximum recoverable sucrose per acre. It is important that the plants be evenly spaced within the rows.
There were serious incidences of field pea root rots in the north central and the north western regions of North Dakota last year.
SCN Distribution Update
Clubroot of Canola Found in North Dakota
In the US, sugar is processed from sugarcane and sugarbeet. Sugarcane is produced in Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Hawaii. Sugarbeet is produced mainly in Minnesota, North Dakota, Idaho, Michigan, Montana, Nebraska, Colorado, Wyoming, Oregon and California.
Keeping in view of the weather and insurance concerns, growers should keep an eye out for corn ear rots at harvest.
Soil samples for cysts require a different test than a fertility sample. It is important to treat the SCN soil sample with care and get the sample to the lab as soon as possible. Although cysts are tough, they are still living creatures and do not do well in the sun in a truck for week. Private and public labs can do cyst tests (Agvise, NDSU, UMN, etc.).
There are many seed-borne diseases of dry beans; bacterial blights, Anthracnose, and bacterial wilt to name a few. If you keep seed that is infected with one of the pathogens causing these diseases, you greatly increase your likelihood of having an epidemic in the future.
If you are beginning to see areas in soybean fields where soybeans are shorter and beginning to turn yellow, it is important to start thinking about soybean cyst nematode (SCN).
Halo Blight and Common Bacterial Blight both are both being frequently reported throughout the growing region this year. In most years, Common Blight is common, but Halo Blight is relatively rare. Halo Blight caused its greatest damage to edible beans when temperatures are in the high 60’s to low 70’s. Common Bacterial Blight causes more damage when temperatures are in the 80’s.
The cause of the Irish potato famine, late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is rearing its ugly self again this year. Late blight is a serious disease, because it can devastate potato and tomato fields in a matter of days. Many potato growing states and provinces have identified late blight this year, however it has not been found in North Dakota.
Some of the common diseases that affect sugarbeet include Cercospora leaf spot, Fusarium, Rhizomania, and Rhizoctonia crown and root rot.
Weather in the state has generally been conducive to rust infection and spread, and I have received a good number of questions about rusts on several crops. Below is general information about rusts, followed by specific information to several rust diseases that you may be thinking about. I am not discussing cereal rusts because much of those crops are mature.