Crop & Pest Report - All
Sugarbeet Crop Progress
Wet field conditions in April delayed sugarbeet planting by about two weeks. Typically, all things being equal, later plantings result in lower yields than earlier plantings. Prolonged wet conditions in the northern Red River Valley also prevented planting of about 30 to 35,000 acres. Heavy rainfall and flooding in June will result in the loss of several thousand acres of planted sugarbeets. Dry conditions and long sunny days have helped immensely in good crop growth over the past five weeks. We still have another eight weeks before harvest, so timely rainfall and adequate sunshine can still result in a good crop.
Some fields look great, some fair, and some mediocre. The sugar cooperatives will have a difficult time to estimate the average yield; based on root samples harvested in late July at Minn-Dak Farmers’ Cooperative, the consensus is that average yields will be much lower than last year.
Most of the sugarbeet acreage (97%) in North Dakota and Minnesota were planted to Roundup Ready sugarbeet. Weed control in the Roundup Ready sugarbeet is excellent in most fields, except for areas where glyphosate resistant waterhemp and ragweed have developed. Growers must use other effective herbicide chemistries, cultivation and hand labor to control any glyphosate tolerant weeds in sugarbeet fields. Growers have done a good job at weed control in the conventional sugarbeet as well. A weed free crop makes for a much easier harvest.
Many growers are now using fungicides to control Rhizoctonia damping off and root rot. There are some fields with symptoms of Rhizoctonia but no reports of serious problems to date. There were also some reports of some Aphanomyces infected plants that were blown off in some fields earlier in the season. One major disease reported in the Crookston and Moorhead Factory Districts was Fusarium yellows. Fields with over 50% incidence will have to be destroyed since Fusarium infected plants have roots which may appear healthy on the outside but will cause serious losses in storage piles. Fields with Fusarium yellows should be recorded so they are planted next time with Fusarium tolerant sugarbeet varieties.
What about Cercospora leaf spot? The later planting coupled with cooler nights last week, and low inoculum pressure means that Cercospora leaf spot is not a big issue to date. Growers should have fields scouted for disease symptoms before applying fungicides; this will be a good year to reduce production costs by applying fungicides only when necessary. At my research trials at Foxhome in Minnesota, there is very little disease in the inoculated trial and no infection in a neighboring non-inoculated trial!
Extension Sugarbeet Specialist
NDSU & University of Minnesota
Characteristics Of Late Maturing Corn
The recent period of cooler than normal weather has heightened concerns that this year’s corn crop may not mature before the first killing frost. Corn development can be tracked closely using corn growing degree days (GDDs). Currently GDDs are running behind the long turn average, but not by too much. In fact, the date when 50% of the corn crop was reported to have silked this year, July 28th, is close to the 5-year average date for this developmental stage. Nevertheless, the recent below average temperatures are slowing corn development significantly and so there is justifiable concern about the corn crop maturing late this season, particularly for fields that were planted late. The following table relates calendar days and GDDs to corn kernel development and yield in general terms. The ranges listed below are fairly large in order to take into account variances in temperature within the state and in the relative maturities of the hybrids grown.
Extension Agronomist for Cereal Crops
2013 Spring Sunflower Field Survey
Every year, in the fall, NDSU helps to coordinate the National Sunflower Association Sunflower Field Survey. Over the last years it became clear that uneven sunflower plant distribution in the field was a major yield limiting factor. Doing only a fall survey made it difficult to establish all the factors which were contributing to poor stands. It was therefore decided to follow a number of fields during a growing season with an early season survey followed by the fall survey. So far during the early summer of 2013 a total of 23 fields have been surveyed (after sunflower establishment) in 16 counties.
Three fields were surveyed in MN, four in SD and 16 in ND. 17 of the evaluated fields had oil seed sunflower and six fields contained confection sunflower. Surveyors looked at the stand establishment in the fields and took stand counts.
The average stand for oil hybrids was 18,825 plants per acre. As expected, the confection sunflower fields had significantly lower stands with an average of 15,536 plants per acre.
Sunflower grown following small grain crops (wheat, barley or oats observed in 12 fields) had on average a stand of 19,234 plants per acre compared with 16,585 for farms growing sunflower after corn (11 fields). This is significantly different. There tends to be more plant residue in corn fields, which may influence the sunflower stand establishment. This finding needs to be looked at in more detail.
On average, over all observations, counting 100 consecutive plants in rows showed 4.5 places with doubles and 7 places with a skip and 1.4 plants affected by insect damage at germination or early stand establishment. In 4.3 % of the fields cutworms were found and in 30 % of the fields wireworms were present. In 26 % of the fields downy mildew was observed. No root rot or sunflower rust were found.
The average seeding depth was 1.75 inches and the plants had on average 15 leaves at the time of the summer evaluation.
Producers reported that they were targeting on average a plant population of 21,600 plants per acre. The average count in the field was 18,200 established plants per acre, which is 84 % of the farmers’ target. This is probably lower than farmers were hoping for.
Some fields had poor results due to wet areas and wet planting conditions. Downy mildew was observed on some of the headlands and in non-resistant hybrids in adjacent fields.
The same fields will be surveyed in the fall and data will be compared between the two surveys.
Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops
Glyphosate On Seed Potatoes Can Cause Major Problems To Potatoes The Following Year
Seed potato plants exposed to low levels of glyphosate can cause significant damage to the seed the following year. When seed potatoes uptake small quantities of glyphosate, it will translocate to the tubers and when seed potatoes are planted they may not emerge, have delayed emergence, or have malformed shoots when emerging. This will result in shoots being more susceptible to diseases, a delay in canopy closure, and reduced yield and quality. Potato plants that have glyphosate residues in the seed had a 63% reduction in yield when they were delayed in emergence by approximately 3 weeks.
At this time of year, many acres of small grains receive a pre-harvest treatment of glyphosate. Potatoes are most susceptible to glyphosate at this time, and a small amount of glyphosate drifting into a seed potato field can cause thousands of dollars of damage. Seed potatoes are worth approximately $4,000 an acre. One acre of seed potatoes will be planted back to 10 acres the next year, making the value approximately $40,000. Caution should be made when spraying fields with glyphosate next to seed potato fields. Communicate with you neighbors to let them know you will be spraying, spray only when the wind is blowing away from the potatoes, do not spray next to potatoes, and leave a border.
Potato Extension Agronomist
NDSU and U of M
Spotted-Wing Drosophila Detected
The spotted-wing Drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, was detected in a cherry fruit sample from the Carrington Research Extension Center that was submitted to the NDSU Plant Diagnostic Laboratory and identified by Patrick Beauzay. The spotted-wing Drosophila was first detected in central California in 2008 and is now widespread. This is the first confirmed record for North Dakota. The spotted-wing Drosophila is a fruit crop pest and attacks cherries, blueberries, raspberries, blackberries, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes, and others.
This fly does not required damaged fruit to infest fruits because the female cuts a slit and lays eggs into healthy fruits. Because fruit harvest is complete at Carrington, there is nothing that can be done at this time in terms of chemical control. Rotation of different classes of insecticides (modes of action) is very important for chemical control of spotted-wing Drosophila and to prevent the development of insecticide resistance. Removing and destroying infested fruits and dropped fruits are recommended and important sanitation for control of this fly pest.
For more information, please see the following websites:
European Corn Borer Egg Masses
Egg masses of European corn borer have been found in the North Central Region of North Dakota, near Mohall (Source: V. Chapara, NCREC, Minot). This area often grows non-Bt corn due to the very short growing season. Although populations of corn borer have declined over the past decade due to the wide scale use of Bt-corn for corn borer, it is still a good idea to scout fields in these non-Bt corn fields for ECB egg masses and larvae.
Tassel stage or older corn: Examine the underside of the middle 7 leaves (3 leaves above and 3 leaves below the ear leaf) on 20 plants from 5 locations in the field. Multiply the number of egg masses found by 1.1 (correction factor for eggs on other leaves). Complete worksheet to determine the need for treatment.
Worksheet for tassel stage or older corn -- You fill in the blanks
1. egg masses per plant* x 4.5 borers per egg mass = borers per plant
2. borers per plant x percent yield loss per borer** = percent yield loss
3. percent yield loss x expected yield (bu. per acre) = bushels per acre loss
4. bushel loss per acre x price per bushel = $ loss per acre
5. loss per acre x 80 percent control = $ preventable loss/acre
6. preventable loss/acre - cost of control per acre = $ profit (loss) / acre
*Cumulative counts taken five to seven days later can be added here
**Use 0.04 for pollen-shedding corn, 0.03 if kernels are initiated
According to the Degree Day (DD) map using the base of 50 F, we are at 50% (1078 accumulated DD) to 75% (1177 accumulated DD) emergence of the adult corn borer (univoltine type) in the northern tier of North Dakota. Adult corn borer emergence is 90% completed at 1274 accumulated DD.
Prevent Insect Problems in Grain Bins
The key to good grain storage is anticipating and preventing potential problems through good bin management. Before treating with an insecticide protectant, make sure that the bins are free of insect-infested grain. Leftover grain should be removed from the bin, and the walls should be swept and vacuumed. All grain handling equipment including augers, combines, trucks and wagons should be thoroughly cleaned and grain residues removed before harvest.
A residual bin spray, such as Malathion, Tempo, Diacon or a combination of chemicals should be applied to all interior bin surface areas 2 to 3 weeks before new grain is placed in the bin. The treatment will kill insects merging from their hiding places (cracks, crevices, under floors and in aeration systems). Also, insects crawling or flying in from the outside will be killed. Apply the spray to as many surfaces as possible, especially joints, seams, cracks, ledges and corners. Spray the ceiling, walls and floors to the point of runoff. Use a coarse spray at a pressure of more than 30 lb per square inch and aim for the cracks and crevices. Spray beneath the bin, its supports, and a 6 ft border around the outside foundation. Treat the outside surface, especially cracks and ledges near doors and fans.
The increased use of metal bins with perforated floors for grain drying and aeration has helped produce a serious insect problem in farm-stored grain. Grain dockage (broken kernels, grain dust, and chaff) sifts through the floor perforations and collects in the subfloor plenum creating a favorable environment for insect development. Unfortunately, the floors are usually difficult to remove, making inspection, cleaning and insecticide spraying in the plenum difficult if not impractical. The infested plenum may be disinfected with an approved fumigant, such as chloropicrin.
Please see the 2013 North Dakota Field Crop Insect Management Guide for insecticides registered in stored grains.
For additional information, please see Dr. Kenneth Hellevang’s NDSU website on Grain Drying and Handling which addresses all aspects of stored grain management, such as cooling grain to prevent insect and spoilage problems
Weather and Crop Phenology Maps
Assistant Professor of Climatology
Minimum temperature on the morning of July 27 was very cool at Beach and Mott with both NDAWN locations reporting temperatures as low as 36oF. The Hazen NDAWN location reported 34oF. Fortunately we missed a July freeze – or at least we thought we missed it. Duaine Marxen, Hettinger County Agent, brought to my attention producers have discovered in some of the low lying areas of their fields cold injury damage. Air temperatures as low as and probably lower than 32oF may have occurred in these low areas. Depending on the development stage of the crop, the minimum air temperature where the crop is growing and the length of time the crop was exposed to these very cold temperatures there may be cold injury damage in low lying areas. I noticed during my travel on Monday and Tuesday scattered low areas where the corn had a bleached appearance. Some of the corn was tasseling and silking. With cool daytime and nighttime temperatures over the past couple of weeks crop development is slow. The accumulation of growing degree days the past two weeks is behind normal by about 50 to 75 units for corn, 25 to 50 units for wheat in the southwestern part of the state. Rainfall over the past seven days has been highly variable with some locations receiving no precipitation while somInfoe producers have reported receiving over an inch.
Second cutting of alfalfa hay has begun with some good yields reported. A very few barley and field pea fields have been harvested in the far southwest portion of the state. Other pea fields have been desiccated, drying down, and awaiting harvest. Winter wheat harvest is expected to start next week. Aphids have been reported on a number of crops but populations have been below treatment thresholds, therefore insecticide applications are not recommended. The most advanced sunflower field I have seen this past week was staged at R4 to R5.1. Most sunflower fields, though, are in the R1 to R3 stage. This week Brandi Herauf, IPM field scout for our area, found a field of sunflower (stage R3) with a significant level of sunflower rust in Adams County. In addition to scouting for insect pests sunflower growers should also add sunflower rust to their scouting list. If the upper four leaves of the plant have an infection severity of 1% or more, a fungicide application is advised. More information on identifying sunflower rust, determining sunflower rust severity levels and controlling sunflower rust can be found at http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/rowcrops/pp1557.pdf or
Please make a note on your calendar to attend the Mercer County Crop Tour scheduled for Monday, August 12. This tour, sponsored by the NDSU Mercer County Extension Service will commence at 5:30 pm CT at the Jeff Ellwein shop located at the corner of Highways 1806 and 200. The tour will look at a number of crops including chickpeas, spring wheat, pinto beans, corn and soybean. In addition to these crops a stop at the saline soils reclamation project on the Shannon Sailer farm will be made to observe the current state of the project area and to review salinity issues and objectives of the project. A free supper will be served at 7:15 pm CT at the Ellwein shop. If you are planning to attend contact Craig Askim, Mercer County agent at 873-5195 by August 9 so we a count for materials and meals.
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
The region’s July 1-30 total rainfall, based on NDAWN stations, ranges from 0.2 inches at Edgeley and Tappen to 1.5 inches at Carrington. Corn and soybean daily water use on July 30 ranged from 0.1 to 0.25 inches. Rain would be welcome throughout the region. Accumulated corn growing degree day units on July 30 for corn planted on May 15 ranged from 1128 (-90 units compared to long-term average) at Carrington to 1348 (+109 units compared to long-term average) at Oakes.
Winter wheat and barley harvest is or will soon be starting throughout the region. Spring wheat generally is in the soft- to hard-dough stages. Most corn is tasseling or silking (VT to R1 growth stages). We need to avoid frost until at least September 25 for corn to reach physiological maturity. Soybeans are at full flower to pod development (R2 to R4 growth stages). Dry beans planted through the first week of June are in the flowering to early seed development growth stages (R1 to R4).
Soybean aphid and grasshopper densities are increasing in the region based on NDSU IPM crop scout data. Sclerotinia (white mold) risk currently appears low for dry bean and soybean. In 8 corn fungicide trials at the CREC (2007-2012) with application of a commonly marketed fungicide at VT-R1 growth stage, 2 of 8 trials (25%) showed a significant yield response to the fungicide, with an average yield response with fungicide at 6.3 bu/acre compared to the untreated check.
Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems
NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center