Crop & Pest Report - All
Supplemental Label for Warrant Herbicide
Monsanto recently submitted supplemental labeling to the ND Department of Agriculture that would allow aerial application of Warrant Herbicide to the crops found on the full product label. This includes field corn, production seed corn, soybeans, and forage or grain sorghum. Monsanto requested approval of the supplemental labeling due to continued wet conditions in the state and difficulty getting ground application equipment into fields. The supplemental labeling has been approved.
You can obtain the supplemental labeling from your dealer or local Monsanto representative. It has also been posted on the online ND Pesticide Registration Database.
Extension Weed Specialist
North Dakota SLN Label Issued for Aerial Application of Laudis
The ND DOA has issued a special local needs (SLN) registration to Bayer CropScience, allowing aerial application of Laudis® herbicide to control weeds, including kochia, in cornfields. Wet conditions from above-normal rainfall precipitation may have prevented ground application of herbicides. The state label would allow Laudis to be applied by aerial application. Laudis is federally registered for use on corn, but only for ground application. The labeling prohibits grazing of livestock or harvesting corn forage in treated fields within 45 days of application. Applicators must follow directions, restrictions, worker protection standard requirements and precautions on the full product label and the SLN labeling. They must also have the SLN labeling in their possession during application. Section 24(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act gives states the authority to register additional uses for federally registered pesticide products, or new products to meet special local needs and EPA reviews these registrations.
Extension Weed Specialist
Clarification of Pesticide Labeling
The Crop and Pest Report has been used to alert growers of new pesticide registrations. Some registration submissions may originate from the manufacturer, as in the case of supplemental labeling, or sometimes the North Dakota Department of Agriculture may issue a special state label (special local needs (SLN) label (example, see Laudis information below). For any pesticide to be used in North Dakota, it must be registered in North Dakota. This includes any label revisions through supplemental labeling. To determine if any pesticide label has been approved for use in North Dakota, please refer to the North Dakota Department of Agriculture registered pesticide database
Even if a company announces a label change through supplemental labeling, that new labeling must still be approved and registered in the state of North Dakota for legal use. This is in addition to all federal labels that have been issued.
In the Crop and Pest Report issued last week, information was given about a supplemental label for Clearfield Plus sunflower. Even though the chemical company had issued a supplemental label with changes from the federal label it had not yet been approved or registered by the North Dakota Department of Agriculture. Verification of state pesticide registrations will be done in the future before information of this kind will be released. We strongly encourage all those involved in pesticide application to refer to the North Dakota Department of Agriculture Registered Pesticide Database to determine if any pesticide label has been registered in the state. This website is also given in the Quick Reference Information section #4 on the back page of the North Dakota Weed Control Guide
Extension Weed Specialist
Soybean Iron Deficiency Chlorosis
Soybean in the state always looks green as it emerges. Iron in soybean is mobile in the plant until the first trifoliate leaf emerges. At that time, for some mysterious reason iron becomes immobile in the plant and has to be taken up fresh for each increment of added tissue. Therefore, soybean that has been green up until now will suddenly become chlorotic if soil conditions are favorable for its development once the first trifoliate leaf emerges. Soil conditions that are essential for IDC development are carbonates. Soils that have pH higher than 7 normally contain measurable carbonates. Soils with pH less than 7 do not have carbonates and IDC is not possible. Yellowing of soybean in acid soils is caused by something other than iron. This year, that yellowing could be caused by waterlogged soils, loss of S or failure of inoculation in first-year soybean fields. Manganese deficiency is unknown in the field in North Dakota. Be advised that manganese application to IDC fields can intensify IDC by competing with iron for uptake.
IDC is minimized by choosing a tolerant variety, using an ortho-ortho-EDDHA fertilizer at planting, such as Soygreen™, planting in wider row spacings, using a cover crop at the time of soybean seeding, and not applying N to the soybeans or at least choosing fields with lower residual soil nitrate levels. IDC is made more severe when soils are wet (a current problem), cool (not a problem anymore), soluble salts are high, or residual nitrate is high for natural reasons or because N was applied with another crop in mind and the field switched to soybean for planting date reasons. Some growers might have used an EDDHA product at seeding and still have intense IDC symptoms. Manufacturers are not required to put the type of chelate on their label. According to Dr. Goos in our department, many EDDHA fertilizers he has tested have lower percent ortho-ortho-EDDHA in their formulation compared to Soygreen. It is the ortho-ortho-EDDHA that is particularly effective against IDC, not ortho-para-EDDHA. Many formulations of EDDHA have significant and often dominant ortho-para-EDDHA instead of mostly ortho-ortho.
Herbicide application will intensify the IDC symptoms briefly, but it is not the root cause of the problem. If IDC is seen in the field, there is no spray that can help. The grower needs to ride it out and soil drying will eventually reduce the problem in most areas of the field if a tolerant variety was grown.
NDSU Extension Soil Specialist
Recent Rains and Recent Topdress/Sidedress Application
As I am writing this at 3 AM making sure my sump pump doesn’t die, it is clear that scattered showers means something different than it did years ago. I have had several calls from anxious growers and applicators that have applied N or S to crops up to 10 days ago and wonder if the 2-6 inches of rain they have received has resulted in total loss of nutrients. Sulfate/thiosulfate sulfur that has been applied to very sandy soils (Arvilla’s, Embden’s, Sioux’s, Renshaw’s, Flasher’s and their sandy loam, loamy sand, sand-textured cousins) are susceptible to losses. Figure that each inch of rain has a potential to move the S or nitrate about a foot into the soil. Not everywhere, but enough area that it will have an impact. So if these soils received great amounts of rain after application, loss potential is high.
If a grower applied anhydrous ammonia sidedress within the past 10 days, nitrate has just now been seriously released, so I do not expect N losses to be significant. If UAN was applied and more than 2 inches of rain in one event has fallen, the 25% of N as nitrate is at risk for leaching or denitrification, but 75 % has not yet been nitrified so losses from this portion of UAN are very low. If we get another deluge in a couple weeks, additional nitrate would have been available, but the corn/beets will be taking up a great deal of N in the next couple weeks also, so I think the effect would again be minimal.
Sidedressing that is being delayed due to wet fields should be done whenever the field is fit. Earlier is better, but corn growth will be delayed due to soggy conditions and its height reduced so that when the fields dry there will be more time than usual to use coulter applicators or ammonia units. When the corn grows tall enough to prevent coulter application or ammonia application, switch to streaming between rows.
When streaming corn, it is important to stream between the rows. Corn is not structured like wheat. Streaming directly onto wheat, the fertilizer either drips off the leaves or runs down the stem. In corn, the fertilizer can drip off the end of the leaf, but it can also be trapped in the ‘cup’ made in the whirl. If you are an observant person, go out after a rain and look at the whirl of corn. It is full of water. That’s where some of your fertilizer will end up if you stream directly onto the corn. This is not a good situation and can result in serious burn and yield loss. Configure another wet boom on your present broadcast boom and add a quick attach fitting to allow the switch from broadcast to streaming in between each row. It just rained, so there is plenty of time to make this happen.
NDSU Extension Soil Specialist
Color me Stupid
Ninety-seven percent of scientists agree that man-made global warming is real, and the 3 percent of scientists that do not think global warming is influenced by human activities are far below their colleagues in their expertise. This is a paraphrase from a paper written in 2010 by Anderegg, et al. in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The 97 percentage has been used most recently in a national speech to initiate regulation of carbon dioxide emissions. The statement that ‘97% of scientists agree that global warming is real’ suggests that the poll includes all scientists everywhere, when it is actually a reflection of the conclusions of recently published climate science journal articles and their authors and not a general survey. They certainly didn’t ask me. The phrase ‘far below their colleagues in their expertise’ can be stated also as ‘these people are just stupid’.
OK, color me stupid. I am not a climatologist, but soil scientists typically have a very broad scientific educational and working science background, including significant mathematics, biology, physics, chemistry and, yes, geology. Geologists are particularly fascinating because they base most of their science on continual earth systems change.
I think that most of the general public, and I also think many ‘scientists,’ have this notion that the earth as we know it has always been so; that Fargo has always had the same climate; that nothing has changed from the beginning of time. However, ten thousand years ago, the area around Fargo was covered by a glacier about a mile thick. Prehistoric peoples walked from what is now Siberia to Alaska over dry land to colonize the North and South American continents. Then something odd happened; global warming. Glaciers started to melt. Over many generations, the glacier melt raised sea levels, preventing uncle Oopa and aunt Oona from uniting with the family in North America and pushing the glaciers further north. One has to wonder if the shamans of the time, seeing their Mammoth and other game herds moving further north from ancestral grazing lands, had a compelling urge to ban that new-fangled fire that they might have perceived as causing the warming trend. Maybe that’s what happened to the Clovis people-they banned fire and froze to death? (But I digress).The warming trend has continued until the present day, with the exception of the ‘little Ice Ages’ of the past thousand years, the year without a summer in the early 1800’s and some years in the 1960’s (I was about 9 and remember it vividly) when my Weekly Reader had a very nice story on the alarming trend towards global cooling and perhaps another glacial age.
But that was then and this is now. The problem with climate research is there is no check. In agricultural research, particularly with plant nutrients, we have the advantage of imposing a treatment with no amendment so that we can look at cause and effect (stupid us). Climate has no such advantage. The need to connect global warming with carbon dioxide release is reminiscent of about 1,300 years ago in Scandinavia when one year into a famine the people around Uppsala, Sweden sacrificed animals to appease the gods. The second year, they sacrificed humans. The third year, they sacrificed their King Domaldi. Poor guy. Cause and effect. Luckily the famine must have ended, or one might imagine that they would have committed community suicide to appease the gods and maybe I wouldn’t be here.
So now, we have global warming and an associated rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. We also have extensive desertification in African and Asia. One would think that greater desertification from peoples cutting any available plant for fuel instead of being able to afford electricity would have some effect on temperature. We also have extensive urban sprawl surrounding weather stations that were perhaps in the country years ago and now are surrounded by concrete. That might have some effect on trends we see in global temperature data. We also have the engine of warmth-the sun- whose output of energy is not regulated by humans, but whose energy certainly must have some bearing into the temperatures on earth. There is concern that the polar ice caps are melting, that coastal areas will be flooded. But are the proper measurements being taken? Is the total ice truly decreasing, or is the ice sheet shrinking in surface area, but thickness is increasing? I don’t know. It seems no one really cares. People just want a simple sacrifice. It seems the victim is coal plants and the cost of electricity. This is year one. Heaven forbid that ‘scientists’ and politicians realize that people also emit carbon dioxide and there is a call for human reduction of 30% to avoid disaster. At that moment, I think that a vote is in order and the politicians are sacrificed first.
NDSU Extension Soil Specialist
Small Grain Disease Forecasting Information
With substantial rains last Thursday through the weekend across much of the state, many NDAWN locations are showing risk of tan spot again. In some locations the forecasting information also indicates some risk of Septoria and leaf rust infections in wheat. Symptoms of tan spot have been observed in fields; Septoria and leaf rust have not been reported yet.
For winter wheat growers, those fields may be fast approaching flowering stage.(see previous article for photo) The NDSU forecasting site and the national Fusarium head blight prediction center are both showing moderate to high risk of Fusarium head blight (FHB = scab) infections IF the wheat crop is in early flowering. For these fields, an application of either Prosaro fungicide (6.5 fl oz/acre) or Caramba fungicide (13.5 to 14 fl oz/acre) may be warranted.
Spring wheat fields should be a week to several weeks away from flowering, depending on planting date, location, and upcoming temperatures. As of June 25, growing degree day (GDD) accumulations for wheat across the state for a May 1 planting date ranged from about 1370 to 1560. GDD accumulations of 1370 means the crop is in the boot swelling stage, while a 1560 GDD accumulation means that heading is beginning. Approximately 1740 GDD are required for flowering in wheat to begin. Recent warm days have resulted in about 38 to 42 GDD accumulations per day in warmer parts of the state, while temperatures of 70+ and 55+ at night are resulting in GDD accumulations of around 32-35 per day.
Later planting dates, such as May 10th, have GDD accumulations of 1150-1400; an 1150 GDD means that flag leaf is visible, while a 1400 GDD accumulation puts the wheat plant near the boot just starting to swell stage. More information about GDD can be found on the NDAWN site.
Emeritus Professor, Plant Pathology
Timing of Fungicides for Scab Control in Wheat and Barley
It is hard to believe that given the cool spring and late planting of crops that one needs to address the issue of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB or Scab) control in small grains. Nevertheless, the winter wheat that established earlier in the fall is now approaching the growth stage that is most sensitive to scab infection. Moreover, the earliest planted spring wheat and barley fields are beginning to head out. Environmental conditions in the next few weeks will play a significant role in whether scab will be problematic this year. The Small Grains Disease Forecasting Model is an excellent resource in determining the risk for scab development. If conditions are conducive for scab development, recommended fungicides can be effective in reducing scab development, particularly if applied at the appropriate stage of development. If conditions continue wet, there is a high likelihood that fungicide use will be profitable.
Timing in wheat – The optimum time to apply recommended fungicides for FHB control in wheat (winter, spring and durum) is at early flowering. Applying fungicide at this stage helps to protect vulnerable florets from Fusarium damage during fertilization and the kernel during early grain-filling. The center spike in the accompanying photo is at the ideal stage for applying fungicides. The spike on the left has emerged from the boot, but has not yet started to flower (there are no visible anthers extruded from the glumes) and will likely be at the optimum stage in about two days. The spike on the right is past the optimum stage; the anthers are bleached and dried, unlike the turgid, yellow anthers in the center spike. The period between head emergence and flowering is usually about three days. Since not all spikes emerge at the same time, fungicides are best applied when most of the main stem and first tiller spikes have reached early flowering. Experience has shown that it is better to apply fungicide too early rather than too late.
Timing in barley – Flowering in barley begins just before the spike emerges from the boot, so barley florets are not overly susceptible to scab infection. Therefore, scab infections do not generally impact yield in barley. The scab fungus, however, is able to infect the glumes of barley and produce DON which impacts its market value, particularly if it is being sold for malt. The malting and brewing industry is sensitive to very low levels of DON. The optimum stage for applying fungicides to protect the glumes of barley from FHB infection is when the spike is fully emerged from the boot. In the accompanying photo, the spike third from the left demonstrates the optimum stage for treating barley with fungicides, with those further to the left too early and the one on the right too late. With barley the appearance of the first spikelet from the boot is a good indication that the best stage for spraying is only a few days away.
Extension Agronomist for Cereal Crops
IDC and Variety Selection
Although soybeans may grow out of the chlorosis, yields can be reduced in severe cases (See Photo 1). The most important management practice is selecting chlorosis tolerant soybean varieties. Chlorosis severity differs from year to year, and it is impossible to give exact recommendations as to what level of variety chlorosis resistance is appropriate for a specific field. In general, the more severe the chlorosis symptoms occur in a field, the higher level of variety resistance should be used. If a field has IDC this year, it is important to note which variety is used and what tolerance the variety has to IDC expression. The next time soybeans are seeded in the same field a variety with more IDC tolerance is recommended. Annually, data about variety tolerance to IDC is reported in the North Dakota Soybean Variety Trial Results and Selection Guide - A843.
Extension Agronomist Broadleaf Crops
Be Aware of Ticks!
Tick season is well underway, and we have received several samples from area clinics and the general public. All but one of these have been American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. Dog ticks are widespread and common in North Dakota. Last week, a black-legged tick (a.k.a. “deer tick”), Ixodes scapularis, was sent in to our lab from Grahams Island State Park near Devils Lake. Females (see photo) are about 5 mm long and are orange with a black scutellum and have black legs. Males are much smaller, and the black scutellum covers the entire top of the thorax and abdomen, so they appear entirely black.
Dog ticks can vector Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia, but these diseases are very rare in North Dakota. Black-legged ticks vector several diseases, most notably Lyme disease, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. Black-legged ticks can be found in northeastern North Dakota. An interagency survey conducted in 2010 found black-legged ticks in Eddy, Grand Forks, Pembina, Steele, Ramsey and Rolette counties. For more information, see the North Dakota Department of Health newsletter and visit the North Dakota Department of Health Tickborne Diseases webpage
Ticks can be found in many habitats, including along and within woods, grasslands, CRP land, ditches, and trails, etc. When venturing into areas that may harbor ticks, be sure to take precautions to avoid tick bites. Wear light-colored, long-sleeved shirts and long pants, and use an insect repellent that contains a minimum of 25% DEET. When you return home, thoroughly examine yourself for ticks. Embedded ticks should be removed with a fine forceps or tweezers by grabbing the tick as close to the skin as possible and gently pulling out the tick. Clean the bite area with soapy water. In the case of black-legged tick bites, a physician should be consulted right away. Dog tick bites should be observed closely. If a rash develops around a tick bite, or if the person bitten develops a fever, consult a physician immediately.
Tick specimens can be sent to Extension Entomology for identification. Place ticks in a small, liquid-tight vial of 70% rubbing alcohol and send via UPS to:
Plant Pathology Dept.
319 Walster Hall
Fargo, ND 58102
Research Specialist, State IPM Coordinator