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Weather/Crop Phenology Maps (08/14/14)

Maps detailing corn accumulated daily growing days, percent normal rainfall, departure from normal average air temperature, and accumulated wheat growing degree days.

Weather/Crop Phenology Maps

 

wthr.akyuz.corn

wthr.akyuz.precipitation

wthr.akyuz.temperature

wthr.akyuz.wheat


F. Adnan Akyuz, Ph.D.

Associate Professor of Climatological Practices

North Dakota State Climatologist

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South Central ND (08/14/14)

Information from the South Central region of North Dakota.

According to NDAWN, only southern counties (Burleigh, Dickey, Emmons, LaMoure and McIntosh) in this region received significant rainfall (0.6-2.9 inches) during August 1-12. Standing water was observed on August 12 in soybean fields near Oakes.  The lack of rain in the balance of the region is good for small grain harvest but is reducing yield potential for row crops. As of August 12, accumulated growing degree day units for corn planted on May 15 ranged from minus 71 (Lisbon) to plus 41 (Harvey) compared to the period’s 5-year average.

Winter wheat and spring cereals, and field pea harvest is slowly beginning. Corn stages generally range from blister (R2) to milk (R3). Soybean stages range from pod (R3-4) to early seed formation (R5). Dry beans are up to the R6 stage of pod and seed development. Sunflower fields are in the R5 (flowering) to R6 (ray pedals dropping) stages.

Crop pest notes:

  • Soybean aphids were found in 19 of 21 fields during August 4-8 in this region during the IPM scout survey – highest average number per plant was 20 aphids. Continue scouting.
  • Soybean bacterial blight can be commonly found on lower leaves – considered minimal or no threat to yield.
  • Continue monitoring for dry bean rust.  Sunflower rust can be readily found and reports indicate fungicides are being applied in southwest counties.
  • Note weed ‘escapes’ in fields that may be herbicide resistant. Also, monitor fields and field margins for new weed species. The picture is waterhemp found along soybean field in Dickey County.

ats.endres.1.fingal corn tour

Upcoming crop tours conducted by the Carrington Research Extension Center:

  • Fingal corn hybrid off-station research site, August 14, 8 a.m.
  • Oakes irrigation research site, August 27, 9 a.m.
  • Row Crop tour - Carrington, September 3, 4:30 p.m. 

ats.endres.2.fingal corn tour 2013

 

Greg Endres

Area Extension Specialist/Cropping Systems

NDSU Carrington Research Extension Center

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Northeast ND (08/14/14)

Information from the Northeast region of North Dakota.

Soybean aphids are slowly making their way north at low levels.  University recommendations are to spray at an economic threshold of 250 aphids/plant on 85% of the plants and when aphid populations are increasing.  Resist the urge to spray below this threshold. 

A rain shower would be welcome as it’s been about 3 weeks without rain.  Light sandy fields are showing some wilting.  Corn growing degree units have been accumulating at a fast pace.  We are now ahead of last year by 3.5 to 5 calendar days in the region using a May 15 planting date.

Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

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North Central ND (08/14/14)

Information from the North Central region of North Dakota.

Thistle Caterpillar in Soybeans: Thistle caterpillar (Fig. 1) was seen in a few soybean fields, the incidence was in low levels and defoliation was not at economic levels (Fig. 2). Thistle caterpillars cause the most injury during V3-V4 soybean stages; however, most of the soybeans are in R3-R6 stages in north central North Dakota. Larvae web together the leaves and will consume most of the leaf tissue. Populations rarely build up to treatable levels in North Dakota. If defoliation reaches 20% during bloom-pod fill, treatment would be advised.

ats.chapara.knodel.1.thistle caterpillar

ats.chapara.knodel.2.thistle caterpillar defoliation

Red Sunflower Seed Weevil: Very low levels of red sunflower seed weevils (Fig. 3) were found in one field at R4 stage out of 4 fields scouted. 

ats.chapara.knodel.3.red sunflower seed weevil

Sunflower Seed Maggot: Considerable numbers of sunflower seed maggot pupae were seen in the heads where the larvae were tunneling (Fig. 4). Quite a few heads were damaged in all four fields scouted. Adult flies were observed flying in the early R1 to R 2 stage sunflower fields (Fig. 5). For more information on IPM of sunflower insect pests, please follow this link: http://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/pests/e1457.pdf

ats.chapara.knodel.4.sunflower seed maggot pupae

ats.chapara.knodel.5.sunflower seed maggot fly

Western flower thrips damage in Canola:

Some curled pods damaged by western flower thrips were observed in few canola fields in north central North Dakota. This insect is not considered economically important in canola in North Dakota.

Read more information in: http://www.saskcanola.com/quadrant/System/research/reports/report-Olfert-thrip-short.pdf

ats.chapara.knodel.6.western flower thrips damage canola

Venkat Chapara

Area Extension Specialist/Crop Protection

NCREC, Minot, ND-58701

 

Janet J. Knodel

Extension Entomologist

 

 

 

 

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Growth Regulator Herbicide Symptoms on Soybean (08/14/14)

Samples have come in showing classic growth regulator (GR) symptoms on soybean.

Growth Regulator Herbicide Symptoms on Soybean

Samples have come in showing classic growth regulator (GR) symptoms on soybean. In reviewing the field and chemical histories there was no indication of herbicide carryover, spray tank contamination, or droplet particle or vapor drift from the nearby area. This phenomenon has been seen in certain years across the Midwest at this time of the year when soybean plants show accelerated growth. The leaf strapping and blistering from rapid soybean growth are classic symptoms that mimic growth regulator herbicides. Applied glyphosate, which would normally not cause any expression of abnormal growth, may also contribute to observed symptoms and may interact with environment and rapid plant growth to cause these GR type symptoms.

wsci.zollinger.1.leaf strapping blistering

There are a few factors that can differentiate this from actual GR herbicide/plant interactions. Leaf strapping and blistering from rapid soybean growth would be observed mainly on the leaves. GR herbicides can also cause these symptoms but in addition may cause epinasty (bending and curving) of leaf petioles. Soybean varieties may also show varying levels of symptom expression – one variety may show prominent symptoms while another may show no abnormal growth.

A “loose” rule of thumb for soybean symptoms from GR herbicides is:

  • 2,4-D = leaf strapping, blistering and leaf petiole epinasty. Stem cracking and callus growth may form on stems.
  • Dicamba = leaf blistering and upward cupping.
  • Clopyralid = Fiddlenecked leaves and growing points and some leaf strapping.

Rich Zollinger

Extension Weed Specialist

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Prevent Planted Acres in 2014 Ripe for Prevent Planting in 2015 (08/14/14)

This spring, there were several growers that mentioned to us that the only prevent plant acres from 2013 that they could plant in 2014 were those that were seeded to a cover crop in 2013.

Prevent Planted Acres in 2014 Ripe for Prevent Planting in 2015

This spring, there were several growers that mentioned to us that the only prevent plant acres from 2013 that they could plant in 2014 were those that were seeded to a cover crop in 2013. This tells us that using cover crops to prep the field for next year’s crop is a worth-while investment.  We have seen a few growers seeding a cover crop in the state, most recently near Park River where Dave helped host the annual 4-H/FFA Land Judging contest, and along Highway 13 in Richland and Sargent Counties where farmers are fed up with wet ground and salinity. However, there are many acres that are receiving a tillage pass or two only. 

We know that margins are close this year, but can’t imagine that yet another prevent plant check would be profitable on these acres in 2015. Seeding a cover crop might make the difference in 2015 between being able to seed a crop or not. There is still time to put some seed in the ground. A radish/turnip cover crop along with something else that is mycorrhiza-friendly would be a good plan.  If you are unsure of what to plant or where to start, contact your county agent and/or call a seed company and speak to one of their specialists on cover crops (you can also watch the cover crop video we produced that can be found at www.ndsu.edu/soilhealth).  Seed companies have general pre-mixes to meet specific goals that can be purchased or you can make your own.   They will help you determine the species, rates, seeding depth, etc.   We have been able to keep costs down to around $18.75/acre doing a simple mix of barley, radish, turnip and dwarf essex rape (or you could swap the rape seed for sunflower).

ssci.franzen.wick.1.emergence prevent plant

 

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

 

 

Abbey Wick

NDSU Extension Soil Health Specialist

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Strip-Till Advice for Valley Soils (08/14/14)

Conventional wisdom is that strip-till can’t work in the Valley because of our high clay soils. I know that this is untrue.

Strip-Till Advice for Valley Soils

Conventional wisdom is that strip-till can’t work in the Valley because of our high clay soils. I know that this is untrue. One good piece of advice I received from a grower that has successfully used strip-till for several years in higher clay soils is to make the strip-till pass immediately after a crop is harvested. If the crop is small grain, run the strip-till unit immediately behind the combine. A grower can apply P and K at the same time, but N should be delayed until after October 1 when soil temperature falls below 50 degrees F. If the weather turns wet, at least the planting strip is made and the N can be dealt with later. If the weather is favorable for fall N after date and soil temperature is acceptable, N can be applied in a separate fall pass.

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

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Nitrogen Losses in High Clay Valley Soils, 2014 (08/14/14)

During the 2010, 2011, and 2013 I estimated N losses in high clay soils based on my ongoing corn N rate project ranging from about 100 pounds per acre in 2010 to nearly 150 pounds per acre in 2011 and 80-100 pounds per acre in 2013. This spring, I established two multi-treatment corn N rate/side-dress N rate studies.

Nitrogen Losses in High Clay Valley Soils, 2014

During the 2010, 2011, and 2013 I estimated N losses in high clay soils based on my ongoing corn N rate project ranging from about 100 pounds per acre in 2010 to nearly 150 pounds per acre in 2011 and 80-100 pounds per acre in 2013. This spring, I established two multi-treatment corn N rate/side-dress N rate studies. At the high clay site, the preplant residual N was 127 pounds per acre in the surface 2 feet. By V9, the check plot N was about 10 pounds per acre, or a loss of about 120 pounds N per acre. These data indicate again that having sufficient preplant N to keep plants healthy until V5, then application of a side-dress rate that is substantial, and in the future is directed by active-optical sensors, is particularly important in these soils. Under similar rainfall conditions, my other site with the same treatments, but on a lower clay soil, losses were relatively low. The second site would fit within the ‘medium-texture soil with higher than 160 bushel per acre’ corn N recommendation category.

Dave Franzen

NDSU Extension Soil Specialist

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Goss’s Wilt and Leaf Blight of Corn (08/14/14)

Goss’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight of corn was found in northwest McHenry County last week indicating that now is a good time to start scouting for this disease.

Goss’s Wilt and Leaf Blight of Corn

Goss’s bacterial wilt and leaf blight of corn was found in northwest McHenry County last week indicating that now is a good time to start scouting for this disease. In the past few years, Goss’s wilt and leaf blight has reemerged as a yield-limiting disease.

Goss’s wilt and leaf blight is caused by the bacterium Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis. The pathogen overwinters on corn residue or on other weed hosts such as green foxtail, giant foxtail and yellow foxtail. Like other bacteria, a plant wounding event is needed for infection to occur. Wounding events such as hail, high winds or sand blasting will allow the pathogen to gain entry. Once infection has occurred, wet and warm temperatures (80˚F) will favor Goss’s wilt and leaf blight development.

Two phases of this disease exist; wilt and leaf blight. Goss’s wilt is less prevalent in ND and occurs when an infection event occurs early on in the growing season (vegetative stages). Symptoms of Goss’s wilt include stunting and wilting of corn plants. Wilted plants will also have orange exudate (ooze) plugging vascular bundles in the stalk (Figure 1). The leaf blight phase is more commonly seen in North Dakota. Symptoms of leaf blight include long irregular water soaked lesions (Figures 2 and 3.) that generally run parallel to the venation of the leaf. As the lesions mature, “freckles” will often appear in the center of the lesions (Figures 4 and 5.). Orange ooze may also be present in the lesions during mornings with heavy dews.

 ppth.chapara.friskop.1.vascular plugging corn

ppth.chapara.friskop.2.long irregular water soaked lesionsppth.chapara.friskop.3.long irregular water soaked lesions

ppth.chapara.friskop.4.leaf freckles apparent mature lesions

ppth.chapara.friskop.5.leaf freckles apparent mature lesions

Management of Goss’s wilt and leaf blight is achieved through crop rotation, tillage and using less susceptible varieties. The pathogen can survive on host residue for approximately 10 months; therefore crop rotation will reduce the risk of epidemics. Additionally, tillage practices will reduce the amount of residue left on soil surface, and reduce the risk of contact between corn and the pathogen. Research indicates that fungicides are not effective for managing this disease and are not recommended.

Elizabeth Crane is a Ph.D. student in the NDSU Plant Pathology Department conducting research on Goss’s wilt and leaf blight in North Dakota. Her research will focus on documenting the prevalence of this disease in the state and examining the genetic diversity of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis population.

 


Venkat Chapara

Area Extension Specialist/Crop Protection

NCREC, Minot, ND-58701

 

 

 

Andrew Friskop

Extension Plant Pathology, Cereal Crops

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Scout for Clubroot at Swathing (08/14/14)

In the last several weeks, clubroot has been found in several fields in the NE part of the state.

Scout for Clubroot at Swathing

In the last several weeks, clubroot has been found in several fields in the NE part of the state.  We expect that more canola fields have clubroot, and strongly encourage growers to look for clubroot at swathing.

Clubroot is caused by a soilborne pathogen whose spores need water to cause infection.  The pathogen can spread in the water, but is commonly moved greater distances in soil on dirty equipment.  Spores can also be dispersed in airborne dust.  The pathogen infects roots, causing them to swell and become brittle.   

Scouting:

Clubroot often occurs in patches in fields (Figure 1).  Look for thin stands near field entrances or places of water movement.  The plants may not swath with a clean cut, but instead plants literally pull out the ground due to poor root anchoring from club development (Figure 2).  Stems have a tan, faded, and often-described bleached color as compared to healthy yellow-green stems (Figure 3).  Pod development is poor. 

ppth.markell.1.patches clubroot canola

ppth.markell.2.Clubroot infected plants broken off at the soil

ppth.makell.3.discolored bleached stems

Infected plants have often-brittle root clubs and plants can be pulled from the soil easily.  If roots are dug, they will appear swollen and brittle, dry and dusty (Figures 4 and 5).  Sometimes, the root ‘disintegrates’ when breaking off the soil.

 ppth.markell.4.clubroot infected roots

ppth.markell.5.clubroot infected roots

If you suspect clubroot, keep the pathogen in place.  Do not let loose soil be transported with you to other locations.  Disposable booties should be worn by those inspecting the field and samples should be bagged.

If the pathogen is found, it will be important to get as much management information as possible this winter.  If it is found in one field on your farm, consider the other fields at risk.  The clubroot pathogen can survive for years in the soil, and field to field spread on equipment within your farm is possible, if not likely. 

Other diseases you may see:

Two other diseases that you are likely to see in the swath are white mold and blackleg.  Canola plants with white mold will also have a bleached lesion, but unlike plants infected with clubroot, stems with white mold often shred, may contain sclerotia and the root will be normal (Figure 6). 

ppth.markell.6.stems.sclerotinia

Plants with blackleg will have a black lesion, often sunken, and may contain pycnidia (black specs).  The entire stem may be black and may appear unhealthy, but the roots will be normal (Figure 7).

 ppth.markell.7.stems.blackleg

 

Lesley Lubenow

Area Extension Specialist/Agronomy

 

Sam Markell

Extension Plant Pathologist, Broad-leaf Crops

 

Ron Beneda

Cavalier County Extension Agent

 


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